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Evaluation of



(Accepted for publication 8/2017 – the journal Evaluation and Program Planning)

Primary Investigator (PI) Dr. Dee Ray, U of N TX, Denton, JP Lilly, LCSW, Chief, Founder of B.A.C.A., Dr. Nancy Gallina, Dean, Touro U, NY, Clinical Advisor to the LI chapter, and Dr. Paula MacIan (Doc) Project Coordinator, Clinical Advisor OK State and Central OK Chapter.


A single group repeated measure evaluation was conducted of B.A.C.A. intervention over the course of four years.  Four administrations (Pretest or Time 1=before the family met with the B.A.C.A. Initial Contact Team (ICT)), Time 2= two weeks after the Level 1, Time 3 = in six months, and Time 4 = in one year) using the same two measures (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS)) were conducted.

Participants included 154 children (103 girls (66.9%); 51 boys (33.1%)) who were provided services in 16 states of the United States (273 referrals were received, 154 were completed).

Arizona 18
Iowa 2
Louisiana 1
Massachusetts 13
Maryland 2
Missouri 34
North Carolina 7
New Hampshire 6
New York 2
Ohio 20
Oklahoma 24
Texas 5
Utah 13
Virginia 4
Washington 1
Wyoming 2


Children ranged from 3 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 9.96 years (SD = 3.62).  One 18 year old adolescent was included in the sample because participation in B.A.C.A. intervention began at age 17.  The participants were predominantly white (approximately 80+%), 1 African American, 1 Native American, 2 Hispanic, 1 unknown and the remainder were of mixed race.  The type of abuse was sexual (66.9%), physical (28.9%), other type of abuse (4.19%) and 2 unknown (01%).  Other data (therapy, medication) will be noted but was not analyzed because it was not included in the initial protocol.

For the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), there was a statistically significant difference, with a large effect size across time periods.  All time periods were statistically significant, improved from pretest (prior to meeting up with B.A.C.A. Initial Contact Team); reports indicated that children’s total difficult behaviors decreased over the time of intervention for total difficulties including emotional distress, conduct problems, and hyperactivity/attentional problems.  There was a statistically significant difference with a moderate effect size across times periods for children’s peer problems that decreased from initial measurement to final intervention (time 1=before meeting B.A.C.A. ICT and time 4 =in one year).  There was no statistically significant difference across time periods with negligible effect size for prosocial behavior.  Reports indicated that children’s prosocial behaviors remained relatively stable over the time of intervention.  It should be noted that the pretest mean score (8.24) was in the average range, meaning that the children began intervention in the average range in this domain. 

For the Behavioral and Emotional Functioning (BESS) measurement, there was a statistically significant difference with a large effect size across all times periods.  All time periods were statistically significant and improved from pretest (time1 = before guardians met with ICT).  Reports indicated that children’s total emotional and behavioral problems decreased over the time of intervention and that participants as a group began intervention in the elevated range (61 – 70) with a mean of 65.42 and ended intervention in the normal range (10 – 60) with a mean 57-70, indicating clinically significant findings.

Means and standard deviation for Each data collection point

                                                     Time 1             Time 2                    Time 3             Time 4

SDQ Total Difficulties             19.46 (8.28)      16.81 (8.08)         15.24 (8.59)        14.45 (8.30)

SDQ Emotional Distress           6.47 (2.64)        5.16 (2.76)            4.63 (2.92)          4.26 (2.89)

SDQ Conduct Problems            3.55 (2.94)        3.25 (2.75)            2.81 (2.80)          2.61 (2.49)

SDQ Hyperactivity                       6.11 (3.05)        5.29 (3.01)            5.06 (3.16)          4.80 (3.10)

SDQ Peer Problems                    3.45 (2.50)        3.03 (2.30)            2.76 (2.36)          2.78 (2.49)

SDQ Prosocial Behaviors         8.24 (2.95)       8.27 (2.06)             8.37 (2.01)          8.45 (2.01)

BESS Total                                65.42 (13.14)    60.99 (13.02)        57.91 (14.42)     57.70 (13.41)